George Owen Squier
Major General, United States Army
George Owen Squier was born in Dryden, Michigan,
21 March 1865 and graduated from the Military Academy in 1877. After first
entering the Army as an artillery officer, Squier joined the Signal Corps,
rising to Major by 1903. He commanded
George Owen Squier's career spanned the Spanish American War and World War I. Because of him, the two most important technological developments of his era, the airplane and the radio, became integral parts of America's military arsenal.
After completing only the eighth grade and working for two years, Squier entered West Point. Graduating seventh in his class in 1887, Squier went on to complete his Ph.D. at Johns Hopkins in 1893.
With a first-class education in electrical
science, Squier was transferred to Fortress Monroe where he helped found
the Artillery Journal and used photography and electromagnetism to measure
the velocity of artillery shells. By 1897, Squier had
After a tour of duty on the cable ship Burnside in the Philippines during the Spanish American War era, Squier established the first Signal School at Fort Leavenworth in 1905.
His interest in aeronautics was evidence by its introduction into the school curriculum. That interest in aviation intensified when Squier came to Washington in 1907 as Assistant Chief Signal Officer. Upon his recommendation, the Aeronautical Division was formed. He not only wrote the specifications for the first military aircraft, but witnessed acceptance trails of the Army's first Wright Flyer.
Squier's interest in radio never faltered. During 1909 and 1910, he applied for four patents in multiplex telephony, whereby, several verbal messages could be transmitted and received over a single wire, the basis for modern communications systems.
As Chief Signal Officer during World War I,
Squier was responsible not only for radio, but also was charged with the
entire aviation and communications mission of the United States Army. During
the war, Squier succeeded in opening two great Army laboratories
one at Fort Monmouth for radio and another at Langley Field, Virginia,
for aviation. Squier can be credited with the Army's institutionalization
of scientific research and development for military purposes.
Courtesy of the National Academy of Science:
George Owen Squier (1865-1934), was still Chief
Signal Officer in the U.S. Army when he was elected to the National Academy
of Science in 1919. His invention in 1910 of "multiplexing" allowed telephone
wires to carry multiple messages for the first time; the carrier frequency
principle involved was later adapted to other types of transmission, including
FM radio. After graduation from West Point in 1887, Squier received his
Ph.D. from ohns Hopkins University in 1893, making him perhaps the first
member of the Army's officer corps to hold that degree. Assigned to the
Army Signal Corps after serving in the Spanish-American War, he worked
on improving the Army's wireless telegraphy and telephony. In 1908 he became
the first passenger to fly in an airplane, and subsequently helped set
up the Air Service, forerunner of today's US Air Force, within the Army's
Signal Corps. His 1917 address to the National Research Council on military
aviation problems was a virtual blueprint for the work the Research Council
eventually performed in that area. Shortly before his retirement in 1924,
Squier turned his attention to a new application of the transmission technologies
he helped to develop: piped-in music. His idea led to the establishment
in 1922 of the music service Wired Radio, which is much better known by
its present name, given it by Squier shortly before his death: Muzak.
Posted: 14 October 2001 Updated: 22 February 2004 Updated: 31 August 2004 Updated: 6 December 2004 Updated 8 March 2013
Photo By M. R. Patterson, 3 December 2004